How would we ever garden without peppers? Whether you prefer a crisp bell pepper, just a little bit of heat from a jalapeno, or you’re a die-hard habanero fan, this is a staple garden vegetable (as are most of the nightshade family). So, when growing our own peppers from seed, we want lots of them and fast. The key to that? Faster germination! Germinating pepper seeds is the very first step to growing this feisty plant.
However, germinating seeds can be a long and finicky process, especially when growing the hot ones. By understanding how germination works and tweaking our technique to complement it, we’ll germinate pepper seeds in no time!
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Pepper Seed Germination Time
Germination time depends on the species and how the particular seed is feeling. While super hot peppers generally take longer to germinate, the germination time for a single species can vary widely. Here’s a sample of germination time for some species so you can get an idea of how much it varies:
|Pepper Variety||Germination Time|
|Bell Pepper||10 days|
|Cayenne Pepper||16-20 days|
|Jalapeno Pepper||2-3 weeks|
|Habanero Pepper||1-5 weeks|
|Piquillo Pepper||2-6 weeks|
Since we’re super impatient and pepper seed germination can potentially take a month or more, we’re going to learn how to make pepper seeds germinate faster.
If we want to germinate pepper seeds fast, we have to understand what we’re doing. Luckily, you don’t have to be a botanist to learn just how seeds sprout. Here’s what you need to know.
Let’s start with some quick pepper anatomy. Assuming you’ve cooked with a bell pepper before, you know that there are hundreds of small, flat seeds clustered around a pale, tapered center. Called the pith or placenta, this structure contains the capsaicin glands that are responsible for your classic chili heat. In fact, you’ll find that hotter peppers have more placenta in proportion to pericarp (pepper flesh).
Pepper seeds vary in appearance depending on the species, but they’re generally round with a small, pointed tip (similar to tomato seeds). The outside of the seed, called the testa, protects the embryo inside and must be intact for the seed to be viable. The embryo itself is destined to break through the testa upon germination and grow into a pepper seedling. For now, it’s safe and sound inside the testa, wrapped up in the endosperm.
Pepper plants have evolved to expect a cold season, so their seeds go dormant after developing. During this time, the embryo is simply biding its time until conditions are optimal for sprouting (it only gets one shot, after all!). For peppers, dormancy (and viability) lasts from about 6 weeks to a few years. However, there have been instances of pepper seeds germinating immediately after being harvested, before dormancy could begin.
For dormancy to end, the embryo needs a signal that the outside conditions are favorable for germinating. Pepper seeds rely on temperature. When the soil is warm enough (ideally 85°F), germination can begin. Many studies have been done on forcing dormancy to end, which we’ll elaborate on in a bit.
Heat isn’t enough to sprout a seed. Remember that the embryo is enclosed in a hard shell and can’t just bust out on its own. In nature, the testa is softened by water or broken open by animals or the elements. Because pepper testas are thin, soaking them in water usually gets the job done (no stratification needed).
Pepper seeds can germinate in just a few days or up to several weeks, depending on the variety and method. Once germinated, the embryo grows out of its immature stage and into a seedling, pushing up through the garden soil and unfurling its cotyledons for that first taste of sunlight. Until the seedling starts photosynthesizing, it lives off of the starch stored in the endosperm.
Now that we understand the basics of germination, we can work on making it faster and more successful. There are quite a few strategies out there, so we’ll take it step by step.
Use Viable Seeds
You aren’t going to get anywhere if your pepper seeds aren’t viable. To be considered viable, a seed must be able to sprout and produce a healthy seedling. Seeds are still considered viable if they’re dormant because the potential is still there.
A lot of research has been put into producing viable seeds. The agriculture industry needs seeds with a high survival rate in order to be efficient. In one study, researchers took x-rays of pepper seeds so they could compare differences in seed anatomy to germination rates. The x-rays of the pepper seeds showed how much free space there was between the internal wall and the embryo/endosperm. Seeds with a greater amount of free space had a lower germination rate and higher abnormality rate. However, seeds with no free space also had a high abnormality rate, thought to be caused by cracks in the cotyledon area. The sweet spot was determined as just less than 2.7% of free space within the seed. With this new understanding of seeds, researchers should be able to breed more seeds with high viability.
Since we home gardeners don’t have the equipment to x-ray our seeds, we have to rely on other methods to test viability. The only way to know if a particular seed will germinate is to try it. If you’re planning on growing peppers in bulk though, you may end up wasting a lot of time and resources if most of the seeds are duds. What we can do is test a sample of the seeds you plan to grow, observe the germination rate, and decide if it’s worth investing in the rest.
An easy way to tell if seeds are capable of germinating is the soaking test. Just soak a few seeds in a bowl of water for 1-2 days. The viable seeds will absorb water and eventually sink to the bottom of the bowl. Once they’ve sunk, you can remove and plant them right away. Not only will you be more confident in their viability, but they may also germinate faster!
The soaking test tells you that the seeds can absorb water, but not if they can actually sprout. To know for sure, you’ll need to do a paper towel test. The paper towel method actually sprouts the seeds. However, it takes more time and there’s no guarantee that the seedlings will transplant well. This is a good method if you have old seeds that may have lost their vigor.
Grab a random sample of your seeds (we recommend 10), and spread them evenly on a damp paper towel. Fold the paper towel over, press it flat, and seal it in a ziplock bag. Place the plastic bag in a warm, dark place. After a few days, peek into the paper towel to see if any pepper seeds germinated. Depending on the variety, this could take a few days to a few weeks, so you’ll have to be patient. After the usual germination time for your pepper variety, take note of how many seeds germinate in the plastic bag. Calculate the success rate and decide if it’s worth the time and effort to sow the rest of the seeds. Personally, I’d go for at least a 60-80% germination rate.
Store Seeds Properly
Now that you know they’re viable, you want to store your hot pepper seeds properly until you’re ready to use them. How we store them is basically the opposite of how we sprout them: cold and dry. Keep your pepper seeds indoors in an airtight container. The seeds need to be as dry as possible, so it’s recommended to add a desiccant, such as silica gel or powdered milk wrapped in a thin cloth.
Maintain a constant soil temperature for your pepper seeds indoors – between 35 and 50°F. The fridge or an attached garage in winter usually falls within this range.
Break Dormancy Early
If you buy your seed packets in the spring or store your harvested seeds overwinter, you usually don’t need to worry about breaking dormancy; the pepper seeds will follow their natural schedule. However, if you want to plant peppers seeds directly after you harvest peppers or speed up the germination process, this section is for you.
As we mentioned, dormancy is the seed’s way of protecting itself from the winter elements. To break dormancy, we need to trick the seed into thinking a nice, warm spring has arrived. Water, heat, and light are the keys to breaking pepper dormancy. In fact, the water-based viability tests we just discussed double as dormancy-breaking methods! To further boost germination and attempt to disinfect the seed, some gardeners swap out the water with chamomile tea, sodium hypochlorite, or even a very mild bleach and water solution. If using chemicals for seed germination, only soak the seeds for a few hours, dilute the chemicals, and follow all safety instructions on the package.
The pepper plant is originally tropical, so its seed expects a warm soil temperature of 70-90°F. After soaking and planting, immediately start heating up the soil. A seedling heat mat is ideal because you can monitor and control the temperature. If you don’t have one though, set the seed tray in a warm spot, such as the top of the fridge or near a heating vent.
The rule of thumb for planting depth is twice as deep as the seed’s diameter. For most pepper seeds, this is about ¼ inch deep. The seed starting mix should already be moist when you plant the seeds.
Pepper seeds need to be consistently moist but never soggy. The tried-and-true method here is a seed starting tray filled with a couple of inches of seed starting soil. This potting soil holds water while draining the excess. It’s also fine-grained to match the tiny pepper seeds. Seed trays are just the right size for seedlings and are easy to maneuver with a heat mat or grow lights. They’re also easy to transplant from when you’re ready to move the seeds outdoors so they can produce fruit.
Many gardeners grow peppers hydroponically, so the seed can definitely be germinated in a soilless medium. To accommodate such small seeds, we recommend one with a fine texture (the pepper plants can always be transplanted later). The most popular soilless medium is coconut coir, which has excellent drainage.
Common Germination Problems
There’s nothing more frustrating in gardening than doing all your research, carefully planting, and having nothing to show for it. Sometimes those seeds just don’t sprout! Let’s look at some of the common reasons why you aren’t seeing any pepper seedlings.
The usual suspect is that the seed is too cold. Remember that peppers come from a tropical environment and need a warm area to germinate in. Plus, many hot peppers need more heat than sweet peppers and have an ideal temperature range of 85-90°F. If they aren’t heated, the seeds won’t know that the conditions are safe for pepper seedlings and will stay dormant. Seedling heat mats are vital to making hot pepper seeds sprout – they’re well worth the investment.
Pepper plants need a warm climate, but the seeds will suffer if they get too hot. Ensure that the heat mat and soil are never over 90°F. If it were, the seed could be damaged and lose moisture. To avoid excess heat, keep the seeds indoors out of the full sun and don’t use a grow light until they’ve sprouted.
Since they’re so small, pepper seeds dry out fast. If you don’t keep the soil moist after planting, particularly in dry weather, the seeds could quickly lose their viability. You may need to water the seeds daily or add a mini greenhouse lid or humidity dome to the seed tray to trap in moisture (this will also keep the environment warm).
You don’t want them to dry out, but you also don’t want your pepper seeds too wet. Plants need oxygen to survive and overwatering takes that away from the soil. To avoid overwatering, mist the soil with a spray bottle instead of using a watering can. You can also water from the bottom up by setting the tray in a few inches of water for about 10 minutes.
We’re trying to germinate pepper seeds fast, but sometimes you can’t rush nature. Some seed will take a month or more to sprout, so don’t give up until then. You should prepare for germinating seeds at least a month or two before you plan to transplant so you aren’t rushed.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q: How long does it take for a pepper seed to germinate?
A: It depends on the species, but pepper seed germination can take anywhere from about a week to over a month. Generally, hot peppers germinate faster than mild ones.
Q: Do pepper seeds need light or dark to germinate?
A: Germinate pepper seeds in the dark. That’s what they’re used to since they’re usually planted underground.
Q: Should I soak pepper seeds before planting?
A: Absolutely! Let your pepper seeds soak in warm water to help break dormancy and speed up germination.
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